Saturday, November 14, 2015

Cathedral Church of St. Andrew

Executive summary by darmansjah

Wells Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in Wells, Somerset, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, currently Peter Price, appointed in 2001. The present dean is John Clarke.

The first church on the site was established in 705. The present building, dating between 1175 and 1490, has been described as "the most poetic of the English Cathedrals". It is moderately sized among the medieval cathedrals of England, falling between those of massive proportion like Lincoln and York, and the much smaller Oxford and Carlisle. With its broad west front and large central tower it is the dominating feature of its small cathedral city and is a significant landmark in the Somerset countryside.

The architecture of the cathedral presents a harmonious whole, being entirely Gothic and mostly in the Early English style of the late 12th and early 13th centuries. While the majority of the current structures of the English cathedrals were started in the Norman period, Wells Cathedral was the first that was begun as a Gothic design. The choir at Wells is considered by John Harvey to be the first truly Gothic structure in Europe, having broken from the last constraints of the Romanesque style.The stonework of its pointed arcades and fluted piers is enriched by the pronounced mouldings and the vitality of the carved capitals in a foliate style known as "stiff leaf". The exterior has a fine Early English façade with more than three hundred sculptured figures. Internally the eastern end has retained much original stained glass, rare in England.

Unlike the many English cathedrals of monastic foundation, Wells has retained an exceptional number of buildings associated with its chapter of secular canons: the Bishop's Palace and the Vicars' Close, a residential street which has survived intact from the 15th century The cathedral is designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building, and Scheduled monument.
Early years

The earliest remains of a building on the site of Wells Cathedral are of a late Roman mausoleum, identified during excavations in 1980.

The first church in Wells was built in 705 by Aldhelm, first bishop of the newly established Diocese of Sherborne, in the reign of King Ine of Wessex.It was dedicated to Saint Andrew. It stood south of the present cathedral on the site of the cloisters, where some excavated remains can be seen. The baptismal font in the south transept of the cathedral is from this church and is the oldest part of the present building. In 766 Cynewulf, King of Wessex, signed a charter granting endowment of eleven hides of land.

Two centuries later, the seat of the diocese was shifted from Sherborne to Wells. The first Bishop of Wells was Athelm (circa 909), who crowned King Æthelstan. Athelm and his nephew Saint Dunstan both became Archbishops of Canterbury. At this time a choir of boys was established to sing the liturgy. Wells Cathedral School dates its foundation to this point. With the Norman Conquest, Bishop John de Villula moved the seat of the bishop to Bath. The church at Wells, no longer a cathedral, had a college of secular priests.

Seat of the bishop

Construction of the present cathedral is thought to have commenced about 1175 under Bishop Reginald de Bohun, who died in 1184. Designed in the new style with pointed arches, later to be known as Gothic and introduced at about the same time at Canterbury Cathedral, the church was largely complete at the time of its dedication in 1239. It is clear from the size of the building that it was planned from the outset to be the cathedral of the diocese. Despite this, the seat of the bishop moved between Wells and the abbeys of Glastonbury and Bath, before finally settling at Wells.

In 1197 Bishop Reginald's successor, Bishop Savaric FitzGeldewin, with the approval of Pope Celestine III, officially moved his seat to Glastonbury Abbey, but the monks there would not accept their new Bishop of Glastonbury and the title of Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury was used until the Glastonbury claim was abandoned in 1219.

Bishop Savaric's successor, Jocelin of Wells, again moved the bishop's seat to Bath Abbey, with the title Bishop of Bath. Jocelin was a brother of Bishop Hugh II of Lincoln,and one of the bishops present at the signing of Magna Carta. Bishop Jocelin continued the building campaign begun by Bishop Reginald, and was responsible for building the Bishop's Palace, as well as the choristers' school, a grammar school, a hospital for travellers and a chapel. He also built a manor house at Wookey, near Wells.He lived to see the church dedicated in 1239, but despite much lobbying of the pope in Rome by Jocelin's representatives, he did not live to see cathedral status granted. The delay may have been a result of inaction by Pandulf Masca, a Roman ecclesiastical politician, papal legate to England and Bishop of Norwich, who was asked by the Pope to investigate the situation but did not respond. Jocelin died at Wells on 19 November 1242 and was buried in the choir of the cathedral.The memorial brass on his tomb is one of the earliest brasses in England. Following his death the monks of Bath unsuccessfully attempted to regain power over Wells.

In 1245 the church became Wells Cathedral and the title "Bishop of Bath and Wells" was granted to Jocelin's successors by a Papal ruling of 3 January 1245. Since the 11th century the church had a chapter of secular clergy, like the cathedrals of Chichester, Hereford, Lincoln and York. The clergy were endowed with prebendary lands, with Wells having twenty-two prebends, and a provost to manage them. On acquiring cathedral status, in common with other such cathedrals it had four chief clergy, quattuor personae, the dean, precentor, chancellor and sacristan, who were responsible for the spiritual and material care of the cathedral.


The building of the cathedral, conceived and begun around 1175 by Bishop Reginald de Bohun,was continued under Bishop Jocelin, with Adam Locke as master mason,perhaps succeeded by Elias of Dereham in 1229. There was a break in construction between 1209 and 1213 when King John was excommunicated and the bishop was in exile.

By the time the building, including the Chapter House, was finished in 1306, it already seemed too small for the developing liturgy, unable to accommodate its increasingly grand processions of the large numbers of clergy. Bishop John Droxford initiated another phase of building under master mason Thomas of Whitney, during which the central tower was heightened and an eight-sided Lady chapel, completed by 1326, was added at the east end.Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury followed, continuing the eastward extension of the quire, and the Retroquire beyond with its forest of pillars. He also built Vicars' Close and the Vicars' Hall, to give the men of the choir a secure place to live and dine, away from the town and its temptations.He enjoyed an uneasy relationship with the citizens of Wells, partly because of his imposition of taxes, and felt the need to surround his palace with crenellated walls and a moat and drawbridge.

The appointment of William Wynford as master mason in 1365 marked another period of activity. One of the foremost architects of his time, Wynford worked for the king at Windsor, and at New College, Oxford and Winchester Cathedral. Under Bishop John Harewell, who raised money for the project, he built the south-west tower of the West Front and designed the north-west, which was completed later. He filled in the early English lancet windows with delicate tracery. In the 14th century, the central piers of the crossing were found to be sinking under the weight of the crossing tower, which had been damaged by an earthquake the previous century.Strainer arches, sometimes described as scissors arches, were inserted by the master mason William Joy to brace and stabilise the piers as a unit.

Tudors and civil war

By the reign of Henry VII the cathedral building was complete, with its appearance much as today. From 1508 to 1546, eminent Italian humanist scholar Polydore Vergil was active as the Chapter's representative in London. He donated a set of hangings for the choir of the cathedral.The Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1541 resulted in a reduction of the cathedral's income. Medieval brasses were sold off, and a pulpit was placed in the nave for the first time.[ Between 1551 and 1568, in two periods as dean, William Turner established a herbal garden, which was recreated between 2003 and 2010.

Elizabeth I gave the Chapter and the Vicars Choral a new charter in 1591, creating a new governing body, consisting of the dean and eight residentiary canons. This body had control over the estates of the church as well as complete authority over its affairs, but was no longer entitled to elect its own dean. The stability brought by the new charter ended with the onset of the civil war and the execution of Charles I. Local fighting led to damage to the fabric of the cathedral including stonework, furniture and windows. The dean was Dr Walter Raleigh, a nephew of the explorer Sir Walter Raleigh. He was imprisoned after the fall of Bridgwater to the Parliamentarians in 1645, brought back to Wells and confined in the deanery. His jailer, the local shoe maker and city constable, David Barrett, caught him writing a letter to his wife. When he refused to surrender it, Barrett ran him through with a sword, and he died six weeks later, on 10 October 1646. He was buried in the choir before the dean's stall. No inscription marks his grave. During the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell no dean was appointed and the cathedral fell into disrepair. The bishop was in retirement and some clergy were reduced to performing menial tasks.

In 1661, after Charles II had been restored to the throne, Robert Creighton, who had served as the king's chaplain in exile, was appointed as the dean and later served as the bishop for two years before his death in 1672. His brass lectern, given in thanksgiving, can still be seen in the cathedral. He donated the great west window of the nave at a cost of £140. Following Creighton's appointment as Bishop, Ralph Bathurst, who had been president of Trinity College, Oxford, chaplain to the king, and fellow of the Royal Society, took over as the dean. During his long tenure the fabric of the cathedral was restored. During the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, Puritan soldiers damaged the West front, tore lead from the roof to make bullets, broke the windows, smashed the organ and furnishings, and for a time stabled their horses in the nave.

Restoration began again under Bishop Thomas Ken who was appointed in 1685 and served until 1691. He was one of seven bishops imprisoned for refusing to sign King James II's "Declaration of Indulgence", which would have enabled Catholics to resume positions of political power, but popular support led to his acquittal. He later refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary because James II had not abdicated. Thomas Ken and others (known as the Non-Jurors) refused and were put out of office. Bishop Kidder, who succeeded him, was killed during the Great Storm of 1703, when two chimney stacks in the palace fell on him and his wife, while they were asleep in bed.

Victorian era and restoration

In the middle of the 19th century, a major restoration programme was needed. Under Dean Goodenough, the monuments were removed to the cloisters and remaining medieval paint and whitewash was removed in an operation known as "the great scrape". Anthony Salvin took charge of the extensive restoration of the choir. The wooden galleries were removed and new stalls with stone canopies were placed further back within the line of the arches. The stone screen was pushed outwards in the centre to support a new organ.

20th century and present day

The late 20th century saw an extensive restoration program on the fabric of the building, particularly the west front. The stained glass is also under restoration, with a program underway to conserve the large 14th century Jesse Tree window at the eastern terminal of the choir.

The cathedral is used as a venue for a variety of musical events including an annual concert by the Somerset Chamber Choir. The cathedral hosted the funeral of Harry Patch, the last British Army veteran of World War I, who died in July 2009 at the age of 111.

With a total length of 415 feet (126 m), Wells Cathedral, in common with those of Canterbury, Lincoln and Salisbury, has the distinctly English arrangement of two transepts, the body of the church being divided into distinct parts: nave, choir, and retrochoir, beyond which extends the Lady Chapel. The facade is wide, its towers extending beyond the transepts on either side. There is a large projecting porch on the north side of the nave, forming the entry into the cathedral. To the north-east is the large octagonal chapter house, entered from the north choir aisle by a passage and staircase. To the south of the nave is a large cloister, unusual in that the northern range, that adjacent the cathedral, was never built.


In section, the cathedral presents the usual arrangement of a large church, having a central nave with an aisle on each side, separated by two arcades. The elevation is in three stages, arcade, triforium gallery and clerestory.The nave is only 67 feet (20 m) in height, very low compared to the Gothic Cathedrals of France. It has a markedly horizontal emphasis, caused by the fact that the triforium has a unique form, being composed of a series of identical narrow openings, lacking the usual definition of the bays. The triforium is separated from the arcade by a single horizontal string course that runs unbroken the length of the nave. There are no vertical lines linking the three stages, as the shafts supporting the vault rise above the triforium.


The exterior of Wells Cathedral presents a relatively tidy and harmonious appearance since the greater part of the building was executed in a single style, Early English Gothic. This is uncommon among English cathedrals where the exterior usually reveals great diversity of style. At Wells, a number of later changes in the Perpendicular style were universally applied, such as filling the Early English lancet windows with simple tracery, the construction of a parapet that encircles the roof, and adding pinnacles that frame each gable, similar to those around the chapter house and on the west front. At the eastern end there is a proliferation of tracery with repeated motifs in the Reticulated style, a stage between Geometric and Flowing Decorated tracery.

West front

The west front, 100 feet (30 m) high and 150 feet (46 m) wide, is built of Inferior Oolite of the Middle Jurassic period, which came from the Doulting Stone Quarry, about 8 miles (13 km) to the east. According to Alec Clifton-Taylor, it is "one of the great sights of England". West fronts in general take three distinct forms, those that follow the elevation of the nave and aisles, those that have paired towers at the end of each aisle, framing the nave, and those that screen the form of the building. The west front at Wells has paired towers, but these do not indicate the location of the aisles, but extend well beyond them. The west front at Wells is in fact a screen. It rises in three distinct stages, each clearly defined by a horizontal course. This horizontal emphasis is counteracted by six strongly projecting buttresses which define the cross-sectional divisions of nave, aisles and towers, and are highly decorated, each having canopied niches containing the largest statues on the facade.

At the lowest level of the facade is a plain base, contrasting with and stabilising the ornate arcades that rise above it.The base is penetrated by three doors, which are in stark contrast to the often imposing portals of French Gothic cathedrals, the outer two being of domestic proportion and the central door ornamented only by a central post, quatrefoil and fine mouldings of the arch. Above the basement rise two storeys, ornamented with quatrefoils and niches originally holding about four hundred statues, with three hundred surviving until the mid-20th century, since when a number have been restored or replaced, including the ruined figure of Christ in the gable. Many of the figures are life-sized or larger, and together they constitute the finest display of medieval carving in England. Many of the details of the west front were painted in bright colours, and the scheme has been determined from flakes of paint still adhering to some surfaces.

The third stages of the flanking towers were both built in the Perpendicular style of the late 14th century, to the design of William Wynford even though that on the north-west was not begun until about 1425. The design maintains the general proportions, and continues the strong projection of the buttresses. The finished product has been criticised for its lack of pinnacles, but it is probable that the towers were intended to carry spires which were never built.

Crossing tower

The central tower appears to have dated from the early 13th century. However, it was substantially reconstructed in the early 14th century during the remodelling of the east end, necessitating the internal bracing of the piers a decade or so later. In the 14th century the tower was given a timber and lead spire which was burnt down in 1439. The exterior was then reworked in the Perpendicular style and given the present parapet and pinnacles.Alec Clifton-Taylor describes it as "outstanding even in Somerset, a county famed for the splendour of its church towers".

North porch

The north porch is "sumptuously" decorated, and intended as the main entrance. Externally it is a simple rectangular building with plain side walls. The entrance is a steeply arched portal with rich mouldings of eight shafts with stiff-leaf capitals and each encircled by an annular moulding at middle height. Those on the left are figurative, containing images representing the martyrdom of St Edmund. The walls are lined with deep niches framed by narrow shafts with capitals and annulets like those of the portal.


Cloisters were built at Wells first in the late 13th century, but were largely rebuilt from 1430 to 1508. They are in the Perpendicular style, each opening having six main lights divided by a strong transom. The vaulting has lierne ribs that form octagons at the centre of each compartment, the joints of each rib having decorative bosses. The eastern range is in two storeys, with the 15th century library above it.

Because Wells Cathedral was secular rather than monastic, cloisters were not a practical necessity. They were omitted from several other secular cathedrals but were built here and at Chichester. Theories explaining their construction at these secular cathedrals range from processional to aesthetic; none, however, are proven. As at Chichester, there is no northern range to the cloisters. In monastic cloisters it was the north range, benefiting most from winter sunlight, that was often used as a scriptorium.


In 1969, when a large chunk of stone fell from a statue near the main door, it became apparent that there was an urgent need for restoration of the west front.  Detailed studies of the stonework and conservation practices were undertaken under the Cathedral Architect, Alban D. R. Caroe and a restoration committee formed. The methods that were selected for conservation were those devised by Eve and Robert Baker. Baker was employed as chief conservator until midway through the project. W. A. (Bert) Wheeler, Clerk of Works to the Cathedral 1935–1978, had previously experimented with washing and surface-treatment of architectural carvings on the building and his techniques were among those tried on the statues.

The conservation was carried out between 1974 and 1986, wherever possible using non-invasive procedures such as washing with water and a solution of lime, filling gaps and damaged surfaces with soft mortar to prevent the ingress of water and stabilising statues that were fracturing because of the corrosion of metal dowels. The surfaces were finished by painting with a thin coat of mortar and silane to resist further erosion and attack by pollutants.

The restoration of the facade revealed much paint adhering to the statues and their niches, indicating that the facade had once been brightly coloured.


The particular character of this Early English interior is dependent on the proportions of the simple lancet arches and the refinement of the architectural details, in particular the mouldings. The arcade, which takes the same form in the nave, choir and transepts, is distinguished by the richness of both mouldings and carvings. Each pier of the arcade has a surface enrichment of twenty-four slender shafts in eight groups of three, rising beyond the capitals to form the deeply undulating mouldings of the arches. The capitals themselves are remarkable for the vitality of the stylised foliage, in a style known as "stiff-leaf". The liveliness contrasts with the formality of the moulded shafts and the smooth unbroken areas of ashlar masonry in the spandrels. Each capital is different, and some contain small figures, such as the narrative of the fruit stealers.

The vault of the nave rises steeply in a simple quadripartite form, in harmony with the nave arcade. The eastern end of the choir was extended and the whole upper part elaborated in the second quarter of the 14th century by William Joy. The vault has a multiplicity of ribs in a net-like form, very different from that of the nave, and perhaps being a recreation in stone of a local type of compartmented wooden roof for which examples remain from the 15th century, including those at St Cuthbert's Church, Wells. There are transverse ribs but no continuous diagonals, the lierne ribs forming square compartments that are cusped and have curling foliate decoration where they meet, rather than bosses. The vaults of the aisles of the choir likewise have a unique pattern of lierne ribs.

The interior of the cathedral must once have presented a unity. However, after the central tower was heightened and topped with a spire in the early 1300s, the piers that supported it began to show signs of stress. The unorthodox solution of the mason William Joy in 1338, was the insertion of low arches topped by inverted arches of similar dimensions, forming scissors-like structures that brace the piers of the crossing on three sides, while the easternmost side is braced by a choir screen. The scissor-arches are known as the "St Andrew's Cross arches" as a reference to the patronal saint of the cathedral and are "brutally massive" and intrusive in an otherwise restrained interior.

Chapter house

The chapter house was begun in the late 13th century and built in two stages, being completed about 1310. It is a two-storeyed structure with the main chamber raised on an undercroft and entered from a staircase which divides and turns, with one branch leading to a bridge to Vicars' Close. The Decorated interior is described by Alec Clifton-Taylor as "architecturally the most beautiful in England". It is octagonal, with its ribbed vault supported on a central column. The column is surrounded by shafts of Purbeck Marble, rising to a single continuous rippling foliate capital of stylised oak leaves and acorns, quite different in character to the Early English stiff-leaf foliage. Above the moulding spring thirty-two ribs of strong profile giving an effect generally likened to "a great palm tree".The windows are large with Geometric Decorated tracery that is beginning to show an elongation of form, and ogees in the lesser lights that are characteristic of Flowing Decorated tracery. The tracery lights still contain ancient glass. Beneath the windows are fifty-one stalls, the canopies of which are enlivened by carvings including many heads carved in a light-hearted manner.

Lady Chapel and retrochoir

Wells Cathedral has a square terminal to the choir, as is usual, and like several other cathedrals including Salisbury and Lichfield, has a lower Lady Chapel projecting at the eastern end, begun by Thomas Witney in about 1310, possibly before the Chapter House was completed. The Lady Chapel seems to have begun as a free-standing structure in the form of an elongated octagon, but the plan changed, and it was linked to the eastern end of the building by the extension of the choir, and construction of a second transept or retrochoir behind the choir, probably by William Joy.

The Lady Chapel has a vault of complex and somewhat irregular pattern, as the chapel is not symmetrical about both axis. The main ribs are intersected by additional non-supporting ribs known as "lierne ribs" and which in this case form a star-shaped pattern at the apex of the vault. It is one of the earliest lierne vaults in England. There are five large windows, of which four are filled with fragments of Medieval glass. The tracery of the windows is in the style known as Reticulated Gothic, having a pattern of a single repeated shape, in this case a trefoil, giving a reticulate or net-like appearance.

The retrochoir extends across the eastern end of the choir and into the eastern transepts. At its centre the vault is supported by a remarkable structure of angled piers. Two of these piers are located so as to complete the octagonal shape of the Lady Chapel, a solution described by Francis Bond as "an intuition of Genius".[80] The piers are shafted with marble, and with the vaults that they support, create a vista of great complexity from every angle. The windows of the retrochoir are in the Reticulated style like those of the Lady Chapel, but are fully Flowing Decorated in that the tracery mouldings form ogival curves.

Artworks and treasures

Wells Cathedral contains one of the most substantial collections of medieval stained glass in England, despite damage by Parliamentary troops in 1642 and 1643. The oldest surviving glass dates from the late 13th century and is in two windows on the west side of the Chapter House staircase. Two windows in the south choir aisle are from 1310–1320.

The Lady Chapel has five windows of which four date from 1325–1330,and include images of local saint Dunstan.[81] The east window was restored to a semblance of its original appearance by Thomas Willement in 1845. The other windows have complete canopies, but the pictorial sections are fragmented.

The east window of the choir is a broad seven-light window dating from 1340–1345. It depicts the Jesse Tree and demonstrates the use of silver staining, which was a new technique in the 1300s. The combination of yellow and green glass and the application of the bright yellow stain gives the window its popular name the "Golden Window".It is flanked by two windows each side in the clerestory, with large figures of saints, also dated to 1340–1345. In 2010 a major conservation programme was undertaken on the Jesse window.

The panels in the chapel of St Katherine are attributed to Arnold of Nijmegen and date from about 1520. They were acquired from the destroyed church of Saint-Jean, Rouen, the last panel being purchased in 1953.

The large triple lancet to the nave west end was glazed at the expense of Dean Creyghton at a cost of £140 in 1664. It was repaired in 1813, and the central light was largely replaced to a design by Archibald Keightley Nicholson between 1925 and 1931. The main north and south transept end windows are by Powell, erected in the early 20th century.

The greater part of the stone carvings of Wells Cathedral comprises foliate capitals in the stiff-leaf style. These are found ornamenting the piers of the nave, choir and transepts. Stff-leaf foliage is highly abstracted, and although possibly influenced by carvings of acanthus leaves or vine leaves, cannot be easily identified as representing any particular plant.At Wells Cathedral, the carving of the foliage is notable for its variety and vigour, the springing leaves and deep undercuts casting shadows that contrast with the surface of the piers. In the transepts and towards the crossing in the nave the capitals have many small figurative carvings among the leaves. These include a man with a toothache and a series of four scenes depicting the "Wages of Sin" in the narrative of fruit stealers who creep into an orchard and are subsequently beaten by the farmer. Another well-known carving is in the north transept aisle, a corbel with foliage on which climbs a lizard, sometimes identified as a salamander, a symbol of eternal life.

Carvings in the Decorated Gothic style may be found in the eastern end of the buildings, where there are many carved bosses. In the Chapter House, the carvings of the fifty-one stalls includes numerous small heads of a great variety, many of them smiling or laughing. A well-known figure is the corbel of the dragon-slaying monk in the Chapter House stair. The large continuous capital that encircles the central pillar of the Chapter House is markedly different in style to the stiff-leaf of the Early English period, being clearly identifiable as grapevine. It has a rippling form that is very different to the bold projections and undercutting of the earlier work.

The 15th century cloisters have many small bosses ornamenting the vault. Two of these carvings in the West Cloister, near the present location of the gift shop and cafe, have been described as being Sheela na gigs which are female figures displaying their genitals and variously considered to be associated with depictions of the sin of lust or with ancient fertility cults. The carvings at Wells are not both typical, however, as one has wings and appears to be wearing clothes.

Wells Cathedral has one of the finest sets of misericords in Britain. The clergy at Wells have a long tradition of singing or reciting the Psalms each day, along with the customary daily reading of the Holy Office. In medieval times the clergy also assembled in the church eight times daily for the Canonical Hours. Since the greater part of these services were recited standing, many monastic or collegiate churches were fitted with stalls in which the seats could tip up and provide a convenient ledge for the monk or cleric to lean against. They were called "misericords" because their installation was an act of mercy. Misericords typically have a carved figurative bracket beneath the ledge and framed by two floral motifs known, in the heraldic manner, as "supporters".

The misericords at Wells date from 1330 to 1340. They may have been carved under the master carpenter John Strode, although his name is not documented until 1341. His assistant was Bartholomew Quarter, documented from 1343. They originally numbered ninety, of which sixty-five have survived, sixty-one being installed in the choir, three on display in the cathedral and one held by the Victoria and Albert Museum. When the eastern end of the choir was extended in the early 14th century, new stalls were ordered. The canons of the cathedral complained that they had born the cost of the rebuilding and ordered that the prebendary clergy should all pay for their own stalls. However, when the newly refurbished choir was opened in 1339, many misericords were left unfinished, including one fifth of the surviving sixty-five. Moreover, many of the prebendary clergy had not paid, and were required to contribute a total sum of £200. The misericords survived very much better than the other sections of the stalls, which had their canopies chopped off during the Reformation, and galleries inserted above them. One of the misericords, depicting a boy pulling a thorn from his foot, dates from the 17th century. In 1848 there was a complete rearrangement of the choir furniture and sixty one of the misericords were reused in the restructured stalls.

The subject matter of the carvings of the central brackets is very varied, but with many common themes occurring in different churches. Typically, the themes are less unified and less directly related to the Bible and Christian theology than are the themes of small sculptures seen elsewhere within churches, such as those on bosses. This is much the case at Wells, where none of the misericord carvings is directly based on a Biblical story. The subjects, chosen either by the wood-carver, or perhaps by the individual paying for the stall, have no over-riding theme, the sole unifying element being the roundels on each side of the pictorial subject, which are all elaborately carved foliage, in most cases formal and stylised in the later Decorated manner, but with several examples of naturalistic foliage including roses and bindweed. Many of the subjects carry traditional interpretations. The image of the "Pelican in her Piety" (believed to feed her young on her own blood) is a recognised symbol for Christ's love for the Church. A cat playing with a mouse may represent the Devil snaring a human soul. Other subjects illustrate popular fables or sayings such as "When the fox preaches, look to your geese".[94] Many of the subjects are simply depictions of animals, some of which may symbolise a human vice or virtue, or an aspect of faith.

Twenty-seven of the carvings depict animals: rabbits, dogs, a puppy biting a cat, a ewe feeding a lamb, monkeys, lions, bats, and the ancient motif of two doves drinking from a ewer. Eighteen of the misericords have mythological subjects, including mermaids, dragons and wyverns. Five of the carvings are clearly narrative, such as the Fox and the Geese, and the story of Alexander the Great being raised to Heaven by griffins. There are three heads: a bishop in a mitre, an angel and a woman wearing a veil over her hair arranged in coils over each ear. Eleven carvings are of human figures, among which are several of remarkable design, having been conceived by the artist specifically for their purpose of supporting a shelf. One figure lies beneath the seat, supporting the shelf with his cheek, one hand and one foot. Another sits in a contorted manner supporting the weight on his elbow, while another figure squats with his knees wide apart and a strained look on his face.

The cathedral contains architectural features and fittings some dating back hundreds of years, and tombs and monuments to bishops and nobles

The brass lectern in the Lady Chapel is from 1661 and has a moulded stand and foliate crest. In the north transept chapel is a 17th-century oak screen with columns, formerly part of cow stalls, with artisan Ionic capitals and cornice, which is set forward over the chest tomb of John Godelee. There is a bound oak chest from the 14th century which would have been used to store the Chapter Seal and key documents. The Bishop's Throne dates from 1340, and has a panelled, canted front and stone doorway, and a deep nodding cusped ogee canopy over it, with three-stepped statue niches and pinnacles. The throne was restored by Anthony Salvin around 1850. Opposite the throne is a 19th-century pulpit, which is octagonal on a coved base with panelled sides, and steps up from the north aisle. The round font in the south transept is from the former Saxon cathedral and has an arcade of round-headed arches, on a round plinth. The font cover was made in 1635 and is decorated with the heads of putti. The Chapel of St Martin is a memorial to every Somerset man who fell in World War I.

The monuments and tombs include: Bishop Gisa, died 1088; Bishop Bytton, died 1274; Bishop William of March, died 1302; John Droxford, died 1329; John Godelee, died 1333; John Middleton, died c1350; Ralph of Shrewsbury, died 1363; Bishop Harewell, died 1386; William Bykonyll, died c1448; John Bernard, died 1459; Bishop Bekynton, died 1464; John Gunthorpe, died 1498; John Still, died 1607; Robert Creighton, died 1672; Bishop Kidder, died 1703; Bishop Hooper, died 1727 and Bishop Harvey, died 1894.


The Wells clock, an astronomical clock, is located in the north transept. It is believed to be the work of Peter Lightfoot, a monk of Glastonbury, and date from about 1325. The mechanism, dated to between 1386 and 1392, was replaced in the 19th century, and was eventually moved to the Science Museum in London, where it continues to operate. It is the second-oldest surviving clock in England.

The clock still has its original medieval face. As well as showing the time on a 24-hour dial, it reflects the motion of the Sun and Moon, the phases of the Moon, and the time since the last new Moon. The astronomical dial represents a geocentric or pre-Copernican view of the universe, with the Sun and Moon revolving round a central fixed Earth, like that of the clock at Ottery St Mary. Every quarter of an hour the clock is chimed by a quarter jack in the form of a small automaton known as Jack Blandifers, who hits two bells with hammers and two with his heels. At the striking of the clock jousting knights appear above the clock face.

On the outer wall of the transept, opposite Vicars' Hall, is a second clock face, placed there just over seventy years after the interior clock and driven by the inside mechanism. It has two quarter jacks in the form of knights in armour.

In 2010 the official clock-winder retired and was replaced by an electric mechanism.

In filming for the 2007 Doctor Who episode The Lazarus Experiment, the cathedral interior stood in for that of Southwark Cathedral. Parts of the Academy Award-nominated 2007 film Elizabeth: The Golden Age were also filmed in the cathedral. Part of the cathedral also served as an interior location in the 2013 film Jack the Giant Slayer.

It was also used as inspiration for Ken Follett's novel The Pillars of the Earth, and (with a heavily modified central tower) was used to represent the completed Kingsbridge Cathedral at the end of the 2010 television adaptation.

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