Friday, April 29, 2011

Agro Tourism

History of Quinine eroded from Priangan stelsel executive summary by Darmansjah Godjali


A number of people looking for grass around the land that still leaves the former tree trimming quinine in Kina Plantation land, Kertasari, Bandung, West Java, in early March. Sustainability heritage estates Priangan this stelsel floating.

End of March 2011, three middle-aged man was busy harvesting a few tons of carrots and cabbage at one Kertasari land in the region, the slopes of Mount Wayang, Citarum River, West Java. The vegetables grown by local farmers intercropping on quinine plantations managed by PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII.

Vegetables are harvested directly purchased middlemen who then marketed to Bandung, Jakarta and surrounding cities. The price offered is always fluctuating, but local farmers still pursue business as a major life choices.

Intercropping system in the quinine plantation was done at the initiative of local residents since 1998 after the right to cultivate (HGU), which bagged PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) VIII expired on December 31, 1997. Local people then barged and quinine plantation master.

Land planted with vegetables, like carrots, leek, and cabbage. In fact, there was the quinine tree chopped down because of seasonal crops are considered to interfere.

"About 1,000 hectares (ha) of land in Kertasari quinine plantations have been planted with vegetables. As a result, the number of cinchona also contracted sharply. This condition is triggered by limited land and resources that encourage citizens surging revenues and state-owned land grab, "said Agus Degrees, Chairman
Tarumajaya Forest Village Community Institution.

The condition is recognized Director of Commodities Non Tea PTPN VIII Endang Rahmat. Until now, most of the garden area quinine sold out switch with a vegetable garden. "PTPN not able to do much because the maintenance of the extension of HGU in the National Land Agency was jammed,"said Endang.

Plantation Office Data Jabar said, quinine plantations in the province were scattered in the district of Bandung, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Subang, and the rest scattered in Sumedang, Bogor, Garut, and Majalengka. However, area and production tends to fall. If in 2005, quinine plantation area reached 4149 ha with a production of 820 tons, in 2009 only had 3379 ha producing 352 tonnes. Approximately 86.9 percent of the state managed by PTPN VIII.

Endang explained, quinine plantations are planned will focus on the Mount Tunggul, District Cilengkrang, Bandung regency. The area there is a combination of all commodity areas managed by PTPN VIII quinine. The land is spread across five gardens, each garden Kertamanah, Peak Gedeh, Cikembang, Bungamelur, and Cibitu.

"Plants quinine is shrinking because of weak competitiveness. Even so, we still maintain quinine as one of the peculiarities of products garden in West Java, "said Endang that mention the price of quinine world today it is uphill, which is usd 2,5 per kilogram quinine powder dry skin.

Quinine in West Java

Until the late twentieth century, quinine commodities (Chincona) has increased Earth Priangan name all over the universe. In fact, in 1939 more than 90 percent of the world's quinine powder supplied from various plantations in the highlands of Bandung. Ironic, magical plant that malaria eradication is now increasingly ignored in the middle range of the more valuable commodity economy.

The entry of plants endemic to the highlands of South America to Indonesia not separated from the dark period of agriculture in the archipelago is the application of the system forced cultivation or cultuur stelsel by the Dutch trading company Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) in 1830.

Special land in Java because it is more specific areas of plantation commodities, self-regulated system and called Priangan stelsel.Slightly different from the motives planting coffee and tea prices in the world at that time very high, planted in Priangan quinine initially to keep the plant species was not extinct. The reason, then, quinine drugs proved to be highly important. After the medical world demand increases and prices become high, the Dutch government saw it as a business opportunity.

 Industry quinine in Priangan scattered in Bandung District and County West Bandung could not be separated from the role Junghuhn Franz Wilhelm (1809-1864) which known as the investment business and industry leaders quinine in Indonesia (formerly Dutch East Indies). Scientists as well as nature lovers a German national who was born Mansfeld in 1809, that is seeking the removal of quinine from the Garden nursery Raya Bogor to Pangalengan in 1855.

Haryoto Kunto, the "fragrant flowers in Bandung Raya" (1986), mentioned, when Junghuhn deal with quinine in Pangalengan nursery, the number of trees on the island of quinine 167 Java bar. However, 6, years later, the number was growing cinchona  to 1,359,877 stems and 70 percent of them Cinchona pahudiana manifold.
Although his condition is much reduced compared to decades ago, Jabar is still a major manufacturer of national quinine, in addition to a small portion Also planted in Central Java, East Java and West Sumatra.

Cinchona plants used by first peeling bark. Then processed as necessary, start the pill quinine (malaria cure), quinine salts,soft drinks, to cosmetics.Indonesia's heyday quinine experienced until World War II. More than 90 percent of world demand quinine powder sourced from the region Priangan with volume of 11000-12400 tons per year of dry skin quinine.

Post-independence (1945), the amount of quinine plantations in West Java is rapidly declining.The reason, among others damaged by the war, relations between Indonesia and countries importers cut off so that the "losing" market. For another, many plantations quinine convert to another crop which is more profitable.

After the 1998 reform, the more miserable quinine plantations. There is intention to PTPN VIII quinine as a commodity industry to maintain a typical region in addition to tea and Jabar coffee. However, the area continues to shrink from year to year because it encroached upon the residents. In fact, from the ecological aspect, quinine has preeminence. As plant roots strong, to 6,000 cinchona ever embedded in the Upper Citarum was able to a catchment area of ​​water absorption which prevents flooding and erosion. Now, when Citarum River looking upstream, invisible one left Cinchona tree. All bald, flat with a garden vegetable.

PTPN VIII himself in the work plan the company will reduce the area of ​​quinine which is still approximately 2339 ha to 1470 ha only. PTPN VIII also simultaneous plans to add an area of ​​prospective commodity areas, such as tea and palm oil. Quinine production in 2011 was also targeted only 96 tons of powdered quinine skin dry or shrink away from the realization in 2010 of 178.8 tons.

Judging from the company balance sheet, the neglect of quinine is considered quite reasonable. "Results quinine powder sales in 2010, only usd 5.1 million, or only half a percent  les value of all commodities PTPN VIII, "said Endang.


The fate of the garden area in the Upper Citarum quinine may represent the fate of plant legend drug rescue hundreds of millions of human lives is .... (Mukhamad Kurniawan)

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