Saturday, August 27, 2016


Executive summary by darmansjah

Évora is a Portuguese city in the municipality of Évora. As of 2011, it had 56,596 inhabitants.

Due to its well-preserved old town centre, still partially enclosed by medieval walls, and a large number of monuments dating from various historical periods, including a Roman Temple, Évora is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is also a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.

Évora is ranked number two in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso. It was ranked first in a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district capitals, according to a 2006 study made by Minho University economic researchers.

Main sights
UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Évora
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Evora-RomanTemple edit.jpg
Type      Cultural
Criteria                 ii, iv
Reference           361
UNESCO region                 Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription           1986 (10th Session)

    Água de Prata Aqueduct (Aqueduct of Silver Water): With its huge arches stretching for 9 kilometres (6 miles), this aqueduct was built in 1531–1537 by King João III to supply the city with water. Designed by the military architect Francisco de Arruda (who had previously built the Belém Tower), the aqueduct ended originally in the Praça do Giraldo. This impressive construction has even been mentioned in the epic poem Os Lusíadas by Luís de Camões. The end part of the aqueduct is remarkable with houses, shops and cafés built between the arches, e.g. in Rua da Cano street, Travessa das Nunes lane, Rua do Salvador street. In Travessa Alcárcova de Cima, a narrow lane in the historic center, a well-preserved part of a Roman wall and foundations of a Roman building in a cellar visible through a window are worth a visit.
    Cathedral of Évora: Mainly built between 1280 and 1340, it is one of the most important gothic monuments of Portugal. The cathedral has a notable main portal with statues of the Apostles (around 1335) and a beautiful nave and cloister. One transept chapel is Manueline and the outstanding main chapel is Baroque. The pipeorgan and choir stalls are renaissance (around 1566).
    S. Brás Chapel: Built around 1480, it is a good example of Mudéjar-Gothic with cylindrical buttresses. Only open for prayer.
    Saint Francis Church (Igreja de São Francisco): Built between the end of the 15th and the early 16th centuries in mixed Gothic-Manueline styles. The wide nave is a masterpiece of late Gothic architecture. Contains many chapels decorated in Baroque style, including the Chapel of Bones (Capela dos Ossos), totally covered with human bones.
    Palace of Vasco da Gama: Vasco da Gama resided here in 1519 and 1524, the dates corresponding to his nomination as the Count of Vidigueira and Viceroy of India. The Manueline cloister and some of its Renaissance mural paintings are still preserved.
    Palace of the Counts of Basto: Primitive Moorish castle and residence of the kings of the Afonsine dynasty. Its outer architecture displays features of Gothic, Manueline, Mudéjar and Renaissance styles.
    Palace of the Dukes of Cadaval: The palace with its 17th-century façade is constituted in part by an old castle burnt in 1384; it is dominated by the architectural elements of the Manueline-Moorish period and by a tower called Tower of the Five Shields. This palace of the governor of Évora served from time to time as royal residence. The first-floor rooms houses a collection manuscripts, family portraits and religious art from the 16th century.
    Lóios Convent and Church: Built in the 15th century, contains a number of tombs; the church and the cloister are Gothic in style, with a Manueline chapterhouse with a magnificent portal. The church interior is covered in azulejos (ceramic tiles) from the 18th century. In 1965 it has been converted into a top-end pousada
    Royal Palace of Évora: Remnants of a palace built by King Manuel I in Gothic-Renaissance style. According to some chroniclers, it was in this palace, in 1497, that Vasco da Gama was given the command of the squadron he would lead on his maritime journey to India.

    Roman Temple of Évora: Improperly called Diana Temple, this 1st-century temple was probably dedicated to the Cult of Emperor Augustus (but some texts date it to the second or even the third century). It is one of a kind in Portugal. The temple was incorporated into a mediaeval building and thus survived destruction. It has become the city's most famous landmark. The temple in Corinthian style has six columns in front (Roman hexastyle) with in total fourteen granite columns remaining. The base of the temple, the capitals and the architraves are made of marble from nearby Estremoz. The intact columns are 7.68 m (25.20 ft) high. It can be compared to the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, France.

    University of Évora: Formerly a Jesuit college built by Cardinal-King Henrique in 1559, it includes the 16th century Mannerist church and the academic buildings surrounding the large 17th-18th century cloister.

    Renaissance fountain at Largo das Portas de Moura: Built in 1556 in Renaissance style. This original fountain has the shape of a globe surrounded by water, a reference to the Age of Discovery.

    Giraldo Square (Praça do Geraldo): Centre of the city; in this square King Duarte built the Estaus Palace which even today maintains its Gothic look. The Renaissance fountain (fonte Henriquina) dates from 1570. Its eight jets symbolize the eight streets leading into the square. At the northern end of the quare lies St Anton's church (Igreja de Santo Antão) built by Manuel Pires, also from the 16th century. This is a rather plump church with three aisles. The antependium of the altar displays a valuable 13th century Roman-Gothic bas relief. In 1483 Fernando II, Duke of Braganza was decapitated on this square, in the presence of his brother-in-law king John II. This square also witnessed thousands of autos-da-fé during the period of the Inquisition; 22.000 condemnations, it seems, in about 200 years.

    Cromeleque dos Almendres, 15 km (9 mi) from Évora: Megalithic monument, a cromlech with archaeoastronomical interest.

    Anta Grande do Zambujeiro, about 10 km (6 mi) from Évora near Valverde: It is the larger dolmen in the region.

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