Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Efforts to Restore the fragrance NTT

Original Text by Frans Sarong dan Atika Walujani Moedjiono
Hamzah (46) and the Village Chief Tesbatan, Dominggus Mnau (46, right) talking in the next 1.5 years old sandalwood tree that grows in the yard Hamzah, Thursday (4 / 11). The village is located in District Tesbatan Amarasi, Kabupaten Kupang, NTT.

There are at least 14 sandalwood tree (Santalum album Linn) Nunka teenage years in, homes in the Village Ponain, Amarasi Subdistrict, Kabupaten Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. It was encouraging the return of the glory of sandalwood in the region.
many as 13 trees growing on land owned by Cornelis Rakmeni. One stands again grew in the yard of the house Aleks Rakmeni.
The ranks of young sandalwood also appeared lined gardens in the village Tesbatan pilot project in the same district, as well as scattered in the courtyard houses.
Ponain village is about 60 kilometers south of Kupang. Until the early 1990s, and Tesbatan Ponain known as the center of sandalwood in Kupang district. However, now at NTT sandalwood on the verge of extinction. Almost impossible to find sandalwood in the forests. Left standing can only be found in the garden or yard; it was limited.

Head of the Research Institute for Forestry Kupang Soenarno and Head of Reforestation and Forest Service Hatchery NTT Alfons Jehamat admit, that the loss of about 50 percent of stands of sandalwood. NTT Data Forest Service showed that in 1987-1990 there are 176 949 main stand and 388,003 saplings in Kupang regency, South Central Timor (TTS), North Central Timor (TTU) and Belu. 1997-1998, 51,417 lives and 199,523 saplings parent stands.

Since the 4th century, NTT known worldwide as the producer of scented wood types and expensive because the area is dry. Sandalwood that grows in dry areas will produce good quality wood. Almost the entire NTT is suitable for sandalwood. In addition to the East, sandalwood also found in Sumba, Flores, Solor and Alor.
Sandalwood is also growing in other countries, like India, Fiji, Australia, and New Caledonia.

Long before he became commodities trading, sacred sandalwood. The elders in the East are often held a special ritual that thrives sandalwood and more fragrant. The smell of sandalwood fragrance into harmonious relationship between human gesture and the ancestors, the universe, as well as the supreme being. Therefore, sandalwood is always awake.

"The scent of sandalwood is believed to land as fertilizer and penghalau reinforcements," says anthropologist, Dr. Gregor Neonbasu SVD, Catholic Education Foundation Chairman Arnold, manager of the Catholic University of Widya Mandira Kupang.
When completed the S-3 studies in Anthropology at the National University Canberra, Australia (2005), examined the cultural roots Neonbasu Timorese in Biboki, TTU.

According Neonbasu, in the past, sandalwood perceived as a pretty girl that emit fragrance for families, communities, and the land of Timor. In mythology, sandalwood called hau married, her source of fragrance. "The girl" preserved. Destroyer Sandalwood is believed to be afflicted, in trouble, to meet death.
Neonbasu mention, in the 14th century notes of sandalwood NTT has met Chinese traders. People of the world, especially China and India, described the NTT as a special quality sandalwood producing areas.
The existence of sandalwood as a sacred tree begins to shift into a commodity trading since the 4th century, with the arrival of middlemen from Gujarat and other regions. Around the 7th century, the world searching for sandalwood traders down to the East and the surrounding islands.

Schulte Nordholt (1971) noted, in the 14th century sandalwood, wax, honey and slaves is the merchandise from the East who interinsulair to Java, Malacca, and other areas.
Butje Patty from Kupang Cendana University notes, sandalwood which was originally perceived as a sacred tree in its development and marry hau hau considered plenat (government-owned timber) or hau Outcome (wooden case). It appears when sandalwood is claimed as belonging to the government. Communities are required to keep and maintain, but no right to harvest.
During the colonial Dutch East Indies, all the sandalwood trees are labeled as belonging to the government. At the time of independence, Regional Regulation NTT No. 11 of 1966 proceed Regulation No.
  16/1986 assert ownership of sandalwood by the government, but sparked protests because of the people from further down the sale of sandalwood.

If 1966 people get 50 percent of the proceeds derived from sandalwood land belongs to the people, the 1986 quota of 15 percent of the people live. As a result, people are reluctant to plant sandalwood so the wood was almost extinct after the government exploited and used as a source of revenue for many years (see table).

Sandalwood cultivation

The situation changed since eight years ago. The government revoked the monopoly NTT sandalwood and returns as community property. NTT Governor Frans Lebu Raya two years ago launched a movement to restore the NTT as a "province of Sandalwood".

According Soenarno, Minister of Forestry on February 12, 2009 launched the action spread of seeds and planting sandalwood by the community. "In the next 10 years an important recovery first. If it's a lot of standing, year-elected 11 new seeds. There are currently a moratorium on logging of sandalwood. Expected by 2030 and be ready to harvest sandalwood free commodity, "he said.

In carrying out technical assistance for local government sandalwood, Forestry Research Institute of the Ministry of Forestry was assisted by the International Tropical Timber Organization engaged in policy advocacy and government regulations that favor the community. Also assisted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), research bodies from Australia, to empower people associated nurseries.

According Soenarno, Western Australia's sandalwood cultivation to 2,000 hectares. Timor sandalwood are conserved Thailand and Australia the result was very good. However, sandalwood NTT remains the best because of high levels of volatile oil, which is 5-7 percent of the yield of the terrace.

"It's hard to build industrial-scale sandalwood. The policy approach taken is that people want to plant. Even if there are investors in, will be made plantations of the people, "said Soenarno.

Currently, in the village and the surrounding area grew 550 Ponain sandalwood trees aged 2-3 years results of a mass planting since 2007. Sandalwood it belonged to 110 families who joined in 11 groups of farmers sandalwood.

According to principal investigator Forestry Research Institute of Kupang, Komang Surata, sandalwood prices in the international market is currently around Rp 600,000 per kg. One tree can produce 50 kg-100 kg.

At farm level, according to Village Chief Tesbatan recognition, District Amarasi, Dominggus Mnau (46), sandalwood price of about Rp 250,000 per kg.

March 2009, the villagers got the division of sandalwood seed 2600 stems or 10 stems per family. Although initially hesitant, after a public policy socialization is now enthusiastic to plant sandalwood. Barriers availability of seeds. Until the end of July, according to Village Chief Is Ataupah Ponain, planting sandalwood in the new territory of about three acres.

Now the people of NTT eager to plant sandalwood. The spirit needs to be guarded with policy consistency. What is important, as it is said Soenarno, bureaucrats in NTT's commitment to developing sandalwood, including funding. Thus, the determination to restore the glory of NTT as a "province Cendana" can be realized.

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